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1944 – World War II: Operation Hailstone begins: U.S. naval air, surface, and submarine attack against Truk Lagoon, Japan's main base in the central Pacific, in support of the Eniwetok invasion. 1949 – Chaim Weizmann begins his term as the first President of Israel. 1959 – Project Vanguard: Vanguard 2: The first weather satellite is launched to measure cloud-cover distribution. 1964 – In Wesberry v. Sanders the Supreme Court of the United States rules that congressional districts have to be approximately equal in population. 1964 – Gabonese president Léon M'ba is toppled by a coup and his rival, Jean-Hilaire Aubame, is installed in his place. 1965 – Project Ranger: The Ranger 8 probe launches on its mission to photograph the Mare Tranquillitatis region of the Moon in preparation for the manned Apollo missions. Mare Tranquillitatis or the "Sea of Tranquility" would become the site chosen for the Apollo 11 lunar landing. 1968 – In Springfield, Massachusetts, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame opens. 1972 – Cumulative sales of the Volkswagen Beetle exceed those of the Ford Model T. 1974 – Robert K. Preston, a disgruntled U.S. Army private, buzzes the White House in a stolen helicopter. 1978 – The Troubles: The Provisional IRA detonates an incendiary bomb at the La Mon restaurant, near Belfast, killing 12 and seriously injuring 30 others, all Protestants. 1979 – The Sino-Vietnamese War begins. 1980 – First winter ascent of Mount Everest by Krzysztof Wielicki and Leszek Cichy. 1992 – Nagorno-Karabakh War: Armenian troops massacre more than 20 Azerbaijani civilians during the Capture of Garadaghly. 1995 – The Cenepa War between Peru and Ecuador ends on a ceasefire brokered by the UN. 1996 – In Philadelphia, world champion Garry Kasparov beats the Deep Blue supercomputer in a chess match. 1996 – NASA's Discovery Program begins as the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft lifts off on the first mission ever to orbit and land on an asteroid, 433 Eros. 1996 – The 8.2 Mw Biak earthquake shakes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving one-hundred sixty-six people dead or missing and 423 injured. 2006 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126. 2008 – Kosovo declares independence as the Republic of Kosovo. 2011 – Libyan protests begin. In Bahrain, security forces launched a deadly pre-dawn raid on protesters in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, the day is locally known as Bloody Thursday. 2015 – Eighteen people are killed and 78 injured in a stampede at a Mardi Gras parade in Haiti. 2016 – Military vehicles explode outside a Turkish Armed Forces barracks in Ankara, Turkey, killing at least 29 people and injuring 61 others.