Today in History: Wednesday, July 5

328 – The official opening of Constantine's Bridge built over the Danube between Sucidava (Corabia, Romania) and Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria) by the Roman architect Theophilus Patricius 1316 – The Burgundian and Majorcan claimants of the Principality of Achaea meet in the Battle of Manolada 1594 – Portuguese forces under the command of Pedro Lopes de Sousa begin an unsuccessful invasion of the Kingdom of Kandy during the Campaign of Danture in Sri Lanka. 1610 – John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland. 1687 – Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 1770 – The Battle of Chesma between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire begins. 1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition. 1803 – The Convention of Artlenburg is signed, leading to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king). 1807 – In Buenos Aires the local militias repel the British soldiers within the Second English Invasion. 1809 – The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Wagram is fought between the French and Austrian Empires. 1811 – Venezuela declares independence from Spain. 1813 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence. 1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario. 1833 – Lê Văn Khôi along with 27 soldiers stage a mutiny taking over the Phiên An citadel, developing into the Lê Văn Khôi revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng. 1833 – Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent. 1841 – Thomas Cook organises the first package excursion, from Leicester to Loughborough 1878 – The coat of arms of the Baku Governorate is established. 1884 – Germany takes possession of Cameroon. 1915 – The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia by special train on its way to the Panama–Pacific International Exposition. This is the last trip outside Philadelphia that the custodians of the bell intend to permit. 1934 – "Bloody Thursday": Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco. 1935 – The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation. 1940 – World War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations. 1941 – World War II: Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper river. 1943 – World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943). 1943 – World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel. 1945 – World War II: The liberation of the Philippines is declared. 1946 – The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France. 1948 – National Health Service Acts create the national public health system in the United Kingdom. 1950 – Korean War: Task Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan. 1950 – Zionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel. 1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin. 1954 – Elvis Presley records his first single, "That's All Right," at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee. 1962 – Algeria becomes independent from France. 1971 – Right to vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon. 1973 – A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank, kills eleven firefighters. 1975 – Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title. 1975 – Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal. 1977 – Military coup in Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown. 1980 – Swedish tennis player Björn Borg wins his fifth Wimbledon final and becomes the first male tennis player to win the championships five times in a row (1976–1980). 1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The LTTE uses suicide attacks on the Sri Lankan Army for the first time. The Black Tigers are born and, in the following years, will continue to kill with the tactic. 1989 – Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions are later overturned. 1995 – The Republic of Armenia adopts its constitution, four years after its independence from the Soviet Union. 1996 – Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell. 1997 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Tamil MP A. Thangathurai is shot dead at Sri Shanmuga Hindu Ladies College in Trincomalee. 1999 – U.S. President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. 2004 – The first Indonesian presidential election is held. 2006 – North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2. The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly fails in mid-air over the Sea of Japan. 2009 – A series of violent riots break out in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. 2009 – The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever discovered in England, consisting of more than 1,500 items, is found near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, Staffordshire. 2012 – The Shard in London is inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 310 metres (1,020 ft). 2015 – The United States women's national soccer team won the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Vancouver, British Columbia.