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1914 – The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire at the opening of World War I. The Swiss Army mobilizes because of World War I. 1927 – The Nanchang Uprising marks the first significant battle in the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party. This day is commemorated as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army. 1936 – The Olympics opened in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler. 1937 – Josip Broz Tito reads the resolution "Manifesto of constitutional congress of KPH" to the constitutive congress of KPH (Croatian Communist Party) in woods near Samobor. 1943 – World War II: Operation Tidal Wave also known as "Black Sunday", was a failed American attempt to destroy Romanian oil fields. 1944 – World War II: The Warsaw Uprising against the Nazi German occupation breaks out in Warsaw, Poland. 1946 – Leaders of the Russian Liberation Army, a force of Russian prisoners of war that collaborated with Nazi Germany, are executed in Moscow, Soviet Union for treason. 1957 – The United States and Canada form the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). 1960 – Dahomey (later renamed Benin) declares independence from France. 1960 – Islamabad is declared the federal capital of the Government of Pakistan. 1961 – U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara orders the creation of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the nation's first centralized military espionage organization. 1964 – The former Belgian Congo is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 1966 – Charles Whitman kills 16 people at the University of Texas at Austin before being killed by the police. 1966 – Purges of intellectuals and imperialists becomes official China policy at the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. 1968 – The coronation is held of Hassanal Bolkiah, the 29th Sultan of Brunei. 1974 – Cyprus dispute: The United Nations Security Council authorizes the UNFICYP to create the "Green Line", dividing Cyprus into two zones. 1980 – Vigdís Finnbogadóttir is elected President of Iceland and becomes the world's first democratically elected female head of state. 1980 – A train crash kills 18 people in County Cork, Ireland. 1981 – MTV begins broadcasting in the United States and airs its first video, "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles. 1984 – Commercial peat-cutters discover the preserved bog body of a man, called Lindow Man, at Lindow Moss, Cheshire, England. 1993 – The Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood of 1993 comes to a peak. 2004 – A supermarket fire kills 396 people and injures 500 others in Asunción, Paraguay. 2007 – The I-35W Mississippi River bridge spanning the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapses during the evening rush hour. 2008 – The Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway begins operation as the fastest commuter rail system in the world. 2008 – Eleven mountaineers from international expeditions died on K2, the second-highest mountain on Earth in the worst single accident in the history of K2 mountaineering.