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Today in History: Sunday, June 25

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524 – The Franks are defeated by the Burgundians in the Battle of Vézeronce. 841 – In the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye, forces led by Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeat the armies of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine. 1530 – At the Diet of Augsburg the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany. 1658 – Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Rio Nuevo during the Anglo-Spanish War. 1678 – Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman awarded a doctorate of philosophy when she graduates from the University of Padua. 1741 – Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen of Hungary. 1786 – Gavriil Pribylov discovers St. George Island of the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. 1788 – Virginia becomes the tenth state to ratify the United States Constitution. 1876 – Battle of the Little Bighorn and the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. 1900 – The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China. 1906 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania millionaire Harry Thaw shoots and kills prominent architect Stanford White. 1910 – The United States Congress passes the Mann Act, which prohibits interstate transport of females for “immoral purposes”; the ambiguous language would be used to selectively prosecute people for years to come. 1910 – Igor Stravinsky's ballet The Firebird is premiered in Paris, bringing him to prominence as a composer. 1913 – American Civil War veterans begin arriving at the Great Reunion of 1913. 1923 – Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH.4B biplane 1935 – Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Colombia are established. 1938 – Dr. Douglas Hyde is inaugurated as the first President of Ireland. 1940 – World War II: France officially surrenders to Germany at 01:35.

1943 – The Holocaust: Jews in the Częstochowa Ghetto in Poland stage an uprising against the Nazis. 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in the Nordic countries, begins. 1944 – World War II: United States Navy and British Royal Navy ships bombard Cherbourg to support United States Army units engaged in the Battle of Cherbourg. 1944 – The final page of the comic Krazy Kat is published, exactly two months after its author George Herriman died. 1947 – The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is published. 1948 – The Berlin airlift begins. 1950 – The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea. 1960 – Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union. 1975 – Mozambique achieves independence. 1975 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declares a state of internal emergency in India. 1976 – Missouri Governor Kit Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1978 – The rainbow flag representing gay pride is flown for the first time during the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade. 1981 – Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington. 1984 – American singer Prince releases his most successful studio album Purple Rain. 1991 – Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence by referendum from Yugoslavia. 1993 – Kim Campbell is sworn in as the first female Prime Minister of Canada. 1996 – The Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia kills 19 U.S. servicemen. 1997 – An unmanned Progress spacecraft collides with the Russian space station Mir. 1998 – In Clinton v. City of New York, the United States Supreme Court decides that the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 is unconstitutional.

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