Today in History: Monday, Aug. 28

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475 – The Roman general Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his capital city, Ravenna. 489 – Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths defeats Odoacer at the Battle of Isonzo, forcing his way into Italy. 632 – Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad had died, with her cause of death being a controversial topic among the Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims. 663 – Silla–Tang armies crush the Baekje restoration attempt and force Yamato Japan to withdraw from Korea in the Battle of Baekgang. 1189 – Third Crusade: The Crusaders begin the Siege of Acre under Guy of Lusignan. 1521 – The Ottoman Turks occupy Belgrade. 1524 – The Kaqchikel Maya rebel against their former Spanish allies during the Spanish conquest of Guatemala. 1542 – Turkish–Portuguese War (1538–57): Battle of Wofla: The Portuguese are scattered, their leader Christovão da Gama is captured and later executed. 1565 – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés sights land near St. Augustine, Florida and founds the oldest continuously occupied European-established city in the continental United States. 1609 – Henry Hudson discovers Delaware Bay. 1619 – Election of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. 1640 – Second Bishop's War: King Charles I's English army loses to a Scottish Covenanter force at the Battle of Newburn. 1648 – The Siege of Colchester ends when Royalists Forces surrender to the Parliamentary Forces after eleven weeks, during the Second English Civil War. 1709 – Meidingnu Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur. 1789 – William Herschel discovers a new moon of Saturn: Enceladus. 1810 – Battle of Grand Port: The French accept the surrender of a British Navy fleet. 1830 – The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's new Tom Thumb steam locomotive races a horse-drawn car, presaging steam's role in US railroads. 1833 – The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 receives royal assent, abolishing slavery through most of the British Empire. 1845 – The first issue of Scientific American magazine is published. 1849 – After a month-long siege, Venice, which had declared itself independent as the Republic of San Marco, surrenders to Austria. 1859 – The Carrington event is the strongest geomagnetic storm on record to strike the Earth. Electrical telegraph service is widely disrupted. 1861 – American Civil War: Union forces attack Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries which lasts for two days. 1862 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Bull Run, also known as the Battle of Second Manassas. The battle ends on August 30. 1867 – The United States takes possession of the (at this point unoccupied) Midway Atoll. 1879 – Cetshwayo, last king of the Zulus, is captured by the British. 1898 – Caleb Bradham invents the carbonated soft drink that will later be called "Pepsi-Cola". 1901 – Silliman University is founded in the Philippines. The first American private school in the country. 1909 – A group of mid-level Greek Army officers launches the Goudi coup, seeking wide-ranging reforms. 1913 – Queen Wilhelmina opens the Peace Palace in The Hague. 1914 – World War I: The Royal Navy defeats the German fleet in the Battle of Heligoland Bight. 1914 – World War I: German troops take the city of Namur in Belgium. 1916 – World War I: Germany declares war on Romania. 1916 – World War I: Italy declares war on Germany. 1917 – Ten Suffragettes are arrested while picketing the White House. 1924 – The Georgian opposition stages the August Uprising against the Soviet Union. 1931 – France and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of non-aggression. 1937 – Toyota Motors becomes an independent company. 1943 – Denmark in World War II: German authorities demand that Danish authorities crack down on acts of resistance. The next day, martial law is imposed on Denmark. 1944 – World War II: Marseille and Toulon are liberated. 1955 – Black teenager Emmett Till is brutally murdered in Mississippi, galvanizing the nascent Civil Rights Movement. 1957 – U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond begins a filibuster to prevent the Senate from voting on Civil Rights Act of 1957; he stopped speaking 24 hours and 18 minutes later, the longest filibuster ever conducted by a single Senator. 1963 – March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom: The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his I Have a Dream speech 1964 – The Philadelphia race riot begins. 1968 – Rioting takes place in Chicago during the Democratic National Convention, triggering a brutal police crackdown. 1988 – Ramstein air show disaster: Three aircraft of the Frecce Tricolori demonstration team collide and the wreckage falls into the crowd. Seventy-five are killed and 346 seriously injured. 1990 – Iraq declares Kuwait to be its newest province. 1990 – An F5 tornado strikes the Illinois cities of Plainfield and Joliet, killing 29 people. 1993 – The Galileo spacecraft discovers a moon, later named Dactyl, around 243 Ida, the first known asteroid moon. 1998 – Pakistan's National Assembly passes a constitutional amendment to make the "Qur'an and Sunnah" the "supreme law" but the bill is defeated in the Senate. 1998 – Second Congo War: Loyalist troops backed by Angolan and Zimbabwean forces repulse the RCD and Rwandan offensive on Kinshasa.

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