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Today in History: Nov. 27

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AD 25 – Luoyang is declared capital of the Eastern Han dynasty by Emperor Guangwu of Han. 176 – Emperor Marcus Aurelius grants his son Commodus the rank of "Imperator" and makes him Supreme Commander of the Roman legions. 395 – Rufinus, praetorian prefect of the East, is murdered by Gothic mercenaries under Gainas. 511 – King Clovis I dies at Lutetia and is buried in the Abbey of St Genevieve. 602 – Emperor Maurice is forced to watch his five sons be executed before being beheaded himself. 1095 – Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. 1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703. 1727 – The foundation stone to the Jerusalem Church in Berlin is laid. 1809 – The Berners Street hoax was perpetrated by Theodore Hook in the City of Westminster, London. 1815 – Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland. 1830 – Saint Catherine Labouré experiences a Marian apparition. 1835 – James Pratt and John Smith are hanged in London; they are the last two to be executed for sodomy in England. 1839 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded. 1856 – The Coup of 1856 leads to Luxembourg's unilateral adoption of a new, reactionary constitution. 1863 – American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio Penitentiary and return safely to the South. 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Mine Run: Union forces under General George Meade take up positions against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. 1868 – American Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River: United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land. 1886 – German judge Emil Hartwich sustains fatal injuries in a duel, which would become the background for Theodor Fontane's Effi Briest. 1895 – At the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies. 1896 – Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss is first performed. 1901 – The U.S. Army War College is established. 1912 – Spain declares a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco. 1924 – In New York City, the first Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held. 1940 – In Romania, the ruling Iron Guard fascist party assassinates over 60 of arrested King Carol II of Romania's aides and other political dissidents.

1940 – World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea. 1942 – World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands. 1944 – World War II: RAF Fauld explosion: An explosion at a Royal Air Force ammunition dump in Staffordshire kills seventy people. 1945 – CARE (then the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) was founded to a send CARE Packages of food relief to Europe after World War II. 1954 – Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury. 1965 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000. 1968 – Penny Ann Early became the first woman to play major professional basketball for the Kentucky Colonels in an ABA game against the Los Angeles Stars. 1973 – Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92–3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States. (On December 6, the House will confirm him 387–35). 1975 – The Provisional IRA assassinates Ross McWhirter, after a press conference in which McWhirter had announced a reward for the capture of those responsible for multiple bombings and shootings across England. 1978 – In San Francisco, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White. 1978 – The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) is founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey. 1983 – Avianca Flight 011: A Boeing 747 crashes near Madrid's Barajas Airport, killing 181. 1984 – Under the Brussels Agreement signed between the governments of the United Kingdom and Spain, the former agreed to enter into discussions with Spain over Gibraltar, including sovereignty. 1989 – Avianca Flight 203: A Boeing 727 explodes in mid-air over Colombia, killing all 107 people on board and three people on the ground. The Medellín Cartel will claim responsibility for the attack. 1992 – For the second time in a year, military forces try to overthrow president Carlos Andrés Pérez in Venezuela. 1997 – Twenty-five people are killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria. 1999 – The centre-left Labour Party takes control of the New Zealand government with leader Helen Clark becoming the first elected female Prime Minister in New Zealand's history. 2004 – Pope John Paul II returns the relics of Saint John Chrysostom to the Eastern Orthodox Church. 2006 – The House of Commons of Canada approves a motion introduced by Prime Minister Stephen Harper recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada. 2008 – XL Airways Germany Flight 888T: An Airbus A320 performing a flight test crashes near the French commune of Canet-en-Roussillon, killing all seven people on board. 2009 – Nevsky Express bombing: A bomb explodes on the Nevsky Express train between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, derailing it and causing 28 deaths and 96 injuries. 2015 – United States: An active shooter inside a Planned Parenthood facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado, shoots at least four police officers. One officer later dies. Two civilians were also killed, and six injured. The shooter later surrendered.
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