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1950 – Korean War: Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River ended, with decisive Chinese victory, UN forces were completely expelled from North Korea. 1954 – Cold War: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to censure Joseph McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute". 1954 – The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and Taiwan, is signed in Washington, D.C. 1956 – The Granma reaches the shores of Cuba's Oriente Province. Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution. 1957 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 126 relating to Kashmir conflict is adopted. 1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism. 1962 – Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, U.S. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to comment adversely on the war's progress. 1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations. 1971 – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm al-Quwain form the United Arab Emirates. 1975 – Laotian Civil War: The Pathet Lao seizes the Laotian capital of Vientiane, forces the abdication of King Sisavang Vatthana, and proclaims the Lao People's Democratic Republic. 1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba, replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado. 982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart. 1988 – Benazir Bhutto is sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam-dominated state. 1989 – The Communist insurgency in Malaysia was ended by peace agreement signed and ratified by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) - Malaysian and Thai governments. 1991 – Canada and Poland become the first nations to recognize the independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union. 1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61: NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope. 1999 – The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive following the Good Friday Agreement. 2001 – Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. 2015 – San Bernardino attack: Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik kill 14 people and wound 22 at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino, California. 2016 – Thirty-six people die in a fire at a converted Oakland, California, warehouse serving as an artist collective.