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1922 – Michael Collins, Commander-in-chief of the Irish Free State Army, is shot dead during an Anti-Treaty ambush at Béal na Bláth, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War. 1932 – The BBC begins television broadcasting using John Logie Baird's system. 1934 – Bill Woodfull of Australia becomes the only cricket captain to twice regain The Ashes. 1941 – World War II: German troops begins the Siege of Leningrad. 1942 – World War II: Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy. 1944 – World War II: Holocaust of Kedros in Crete by German forces 1949 – The Queen Charlotte earthquake is Canada's strongest since the 1700 Cascadia earthquake 1950 – Althea Gibson becomes the first black competitor in international tennis. 1952 – The penal colony on Devil's Island is permanently closed. 1961 – Ida Siekmann dies attempting to cross the Berlin Wall. 1962 – The OAS attempts to assassinate French president Charles de Gaulle. 1963 – X-15 Flight 91 reaches the highest altitude of the X-15 program (107.96 km (67.08 mi) (354,200 feet)). 1966 – Labor movements NFWA and AWOC merge to become the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), predecessor of the United Farm Workers. 1968 – Pope Paul VI arrives in Bogotá, Colombia. It is the first visit of a pope to Latin America. 1971 – J. Edgar Hoover and John Mitchell announce the arrest of 20 of the Camden 28. 1972 – Rhodesia is expelled by the IOC for its racist policies. 1973 – The Congress of Chile votes in favour of a resolution condemning President Salvador Allende's government and demands that he resign or else be unseated through force and new elections. 1978 – The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FLSN) occupies national palace in Nicaragua. 1984 – PC Brian Bishop a British police officer is shot in the head by an armed robber in Frinton-on-Sea, Essex. He dies from his injuries five days later. 1985 – Manchester Air Disaster sees 55 people killed when a fire breaks out on a commercial aircraft at Manchester Airport. 1989 – Nolan Ryan strikes out Rickey Henderson to become the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5,000 strikeouts. 1992 – FBI HRT sniper Lon Horiuchi shoots and kills Vicki Weaver during an 11-day siege at her home at Ruby Ridge, Idaho. 1996 – Bill Clinton signs welfare reform into law, representing a major shift in US welfare policy 2003 – Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore is suspended after refusing to comply with a federal court order to remove a rock inscribed with the Ten Commandments from the lobby of the Alabama Supreme Court building. 2004 – Versions of The Scream and Madonna, two paintings by Edvard Munch, are stolen at gunpoint from a museum in Oslo, Norway. 2006 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border over eastern Ukraine, killing all 170 people on board. 2007 – The Texas Rangers defeat the Baltimore Orioles 30–3, the most runs scored by a team in modern Major League Baseball history. The combined run total is also Major League record. 2007 – The Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day 2012 – Ethnic clashes over grazing rights for cattle in Kenya's Tana River District result in more than 52 deaths.